IE251 Manufacturing Process Innovation Laboratory

 

Teaching Goal and Philosophy

This course is designed for the second year undergraduate students at KAIST majoring in Industrial and Systems Engineering (ISysE). The primary goal of this course is to help students develop problem solving skills with ISysE methods in the context of manufacturing planning and control. Students will learn the fundamentals of manufacturing system operations and various manufacturing system related issues such as inventory decisions, production planning, scheduling, supply chain management, IT and Internet of Thing (IoT) in production systems.

 

The progressive development of manufacturing systems in the era of Smart Factory or Industry 4.0 has challenged the education into making a continuous innovation in teaching engineering students.  The teaching in IE-251 is driven by the problem-based learning and project-based learning, where the students' learning is invoked by a real manufacturing problem first, then they get introduced to the theories for solving problems in the manufacturing systems. It is also highly influenced by the constructionism view where students knowledge's gain is maximized through constructing a physical structure during the laboratory activities, building a LEGO based production line (LPL). The course is delivered in lectures and group activities, with LPL as the main teaching laboratory tools.

New Teaching Framework - LEGO Production Line (LPL)

The genuine way to demonstrate a manufacturing system is by observing the real production system itself.  However, it is not a practical classroom teaching tools.  A real production system is not available for modification and each factory has their own customization. The knowledge of a factory is overwhelming; it can lead to an extraneous cognitive load as student is burdened with too many information due to the vast amount of the interconnecting elements. IE-251 through LEGO Production Line gives student opportunity to understand a real manufacturing systems and process while still maintaining the number of information.

The teaching assignments are given so that student can understand the problem into the smallest significant unit in the manufacturing system.

  1. Students learn how to analyze the system.

  2. Students build a complete production systems themselves.

  3. Students improve and make innovation upon the under performance systems.

Students are given the lesson to know what kind of problem they will be able to solve in the class and in the real work. In other words, students are equipped with the solid general understanding of what they have to do in the future when facing a real manufacturing systems.

Building a factory itself is a heavy cognitive load for engineering novices because the students have to incorporate factory planning, factory model, inventory, construction, collecting data, and even automation. However, since LEGO-EV3 components are made for education, the pressure is less than building a real factory. Still, students try and gain the sense of planning and building the factory with the hands-on experience. As for soft skills development, team work was also highly encouraged in building, analyzing, and improving the LEGO Production Line


 
 

LEGO Production Line Structure

A complete production line is assembled by combining the components of the LEGO EV3. A detail elements-by-element construction are provided by LEGO Digital Designer, a computer aided modeling for LEGO robotics. MATLAB Support for LEGO EV3 is deployed to run the LEGO production line, so the students will also learn how to run, program, analyze, and improve the LEGO production line.

LEGO Production line follows the Two Machine-One Buffer system. It is a fundamental production line structure whose interaction between elements constitutes all the central knowledge of a production line. By understanding this system, students are able to synthesize and evaluate a real production line, and conceivably extend the knowledge to a more complicated manufacturing systems.

The model of LPL follows the two-machine-one-buffer system. Raw material enters the system from machine one, buffer, machine two, and finally exit the system after completing the process. Each machine has specific parameters of failure, repair, and processing rate. Therefore, the dynamic between elements create a specific events in the production line. Starvation in machine two happens when machine one fails and the buffer is empty. Blockage happens when machine two fails, machine one is working, and the buffer becomes full. In this system. machine one is assumed to have an unlimited amount of supply, and machine two is assumed to have unlimited amount of storage.

The LEGO Production Line is constructed by LEGO robotics. It requires two EV3 bricks, two large motors, four small motors, five color sensors, and two touch sensors. All of these elements are coordinated together with the static LEGO technique components to form a functional automated production line.

Machine 1

Buffer

Machine 2

LEGO Production Line Structure

A complete production line is assembled by combining the components of the LEGO EV3. A detail elements-by-element construction are provided by LEGO Digital Designer, a computer aided modeling for LEGO robotics. MATLAB Support for LEGO EV3 is deployed to run the LEGO production line, so the students will also learn how to run, program, analyze, and improve the LEGO production line.

LEGO Production line follows the Two Machine-One Buffer system. It is a fundamental production line structure whose interaction between elements constitutes all the central knowledge of a production line. By understanding this system, students are able to synthesize and evaluate a real production line, and conceivably extend the knowledge to a more complicated manufacturing systems.

The model of LPL follows the two-machine-one-buffer system. Raw material enters the system from machine one, buffer, machine two, and finally exit the system after completing the process. Each machine has specific parameters of failure, repair, and processing rate. Therefore, the dynamic between elements create a specific events in the production line. Starvation in machine two happens when machine one fails and the buffer is empty. Blockage happens when machine two fails, machine one is working, and the buffer becomes full. In this system. machine one is assumed to have an unlimited amount of supply, and machine two is assumed to have unlimited amount of storage.

The LEGO Production Line is constructed by LEGO robotics. It requires two EV3 bricks, two large motors, four small motors, five color sensors, and two touch sensors. All of these elements are coordinated together with the static LEGO technique components to form a functional automated production line.

Machine 1

Buffer

Machine 2

Feeder Conveyor

LEGO Production Line Elements

First, MACHINEs is the main component in the production line, where a part receives production treatment.  ​LPL machine is built from static components of LEGO and one light/color sensors. The machine mimics a process by holding a part in t seconds. Light sensors detect a material by recognizing the light intensity transmitted back to the sensors. When it recognizes a part, machine will pause the time for t seconds. After the process, the part is transported out of the machine by a motor and v-belt configuration, attached to the machine.

Second, BUFFER in the form of a conveyor is a transport system that delivers materials from one point to another point. In LPL, there are two conveyor systems with their specific function. Feeder conveyor transports materials to the first machine while buffer conveyor transports materials from machine one to machine two. Additional feeder conveyor is attached before machine one to feed parts to the machine. 

 

A MACHINE has an input and an output. A part (material) goes in through the input and processed according to the technical requirement. When finished, the part goes to the next process.

In two machine-one buffer systems, each machine subjects to FAILURE. Therefore the systems will face a starvation or idle phenomenon based on the state of the machine and buffer condition.

LPL MACHINE is built from static components of LEGO and one light/color sensors. The machine mimics a process by holding a part in t seconds. Light sensors detect a material by recognizing the light intensity transmitted back to the sensors. When it recognizes a part, machine will pause the time for t seconds. After process, the part is transported out of the machine by a medium motor and v-belt configuration, attached to the machine.

A CONVEYOR has two main components, belt track and the framework. The conveyor is assembled by attaching LEGO track elements to form a belt shape. The framework consists of several frame submodule with beams and sprocket to rotate the conveyor belt.

A LARGE MOTOR is connected to the first axle of the frame to rotate the belt. Also, To level the motors and belt, a foundation construction is built by combining several beams.

To control the flow of material from a conveyor to machine, LPL employs CAM GATE MECHANISM. Main program controls the opening and closing of the gate by coordinating touch sensor and motor. The gate is formed by a cam construction using gears and beam. It transfers rotary motion from the gear into linear motion of the beam gate. After the gate opens and let one material go through, the main program will command the motor to position the beam back into closed position, keeping the rest of the queued materials behind the gate.

DOWNLOAD detail instructions, building manual and programming script here.

 

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